.. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
.. (c) Intel and others
Guidelines Addendum for 2018.09 release
This addendum provides a high-level description of the testing scope and
pass/fail criteria used in the OPNFV Verified Program (OVP) for the 2018.09
release. This information is intended as an overview for OVP testers and for
the Dovetail Project to help guide test-tool and test-case development for the
OVP 2018.09 release. The Dovetail project is responsible for documenting
test-case specifications as well as implementing the OVP tool-chain through
collaboration with the OPNFV testing community. OVP testing focuses on
establishing the ability of the System Under Test (SUT) to perform NFVI and VIM
operations and support Service Provider oriented features that ensure
manageable, resilient and secure networks.
Meaning of Compliance
OPNFV Compliance indicates adherence of an NFV platform to behaviors defined
through specific platform capabilities, allowing to prepare, instantiate,
operate and remove VNFs running on the NFVI. OVP 2018.09 compliance evaluates
the ability of a platform to support Service Provider network capabilities and
workloads that are supported in the OPNFV platform as of this release.
Compliance test cases are designated as compulsory or optional based on the
maturity of OPNFV capabilities as well as industry expectations. Compulsory
test cases may for example include NFVI management capabilities whereas tests
for certain high-availability features may be deemed as optional.
Test coverage and pass/fail criteria are designed to ensure an acceptable level
of compliance but not be so restrictive as to disqualify variations in platform
implementations, capabilities and features.
Assumptions about the System Under Test (SUT) include ...
- The minimal specification of physical infrastructure, including controller
nodes, compute nodes and networks, is defined by the `Pharos specification`_.
- The SUT is fully deployed and operational, i.e. SUT deployment tools are
out of scope of testing.
Scope of Testing
The `OVP Governance Guidelines`_, as approved by the Board of Directors,
outlines the key objectives of the OVP as follows:
- Help build the market for
- OPNFV based infrastructure
- applications designed to run on that infrastructure
- Reduce adoption risks for end-users
- Decrease testing costs by verifying hardware and software platform
interfaces and components
- Enhance interoperability
The guidelines further directs the scope to be constrained to "features,
capabilities, components, and interfaces included in an OPNFV release that are
generally available in the industry (e.g., through adoption by an upstream
community)", and that compliance verification is evaluated using "functional
tests that focus on defined interfaces and/or behaviors without regard to the
implementation of the underlying system under test".
OPNFV provides a broad range of capabilities, including the reference platform
itself as well as tools-chains and methodologies for building infrastructures,
and deploying and testing the platform. Not all these aspects are in scope for
OVP and not all functions and components are tested in the initial versions of
OVP. For example, the deployment tools for the SUT and CI/CD toolchain are
currently out of scope. Similarly, performance benchmarking related testing is
also out of scope or for further study. Newer functional areas such as MANO
(outside of APIs in the NFVI and VIM) are still developing and are for future
In order to meet the above objectives for OVP, we aim to follow a general
approach by first identifying the overall requirements for all stake-holders,
then analyzing what OPNFV and the upstream communities can effectively test and
verify presently to derive an initial working scope for OVP, and to recommend
what the community should strive to achieve in future releases.
The overall requirements for OVP can be categorized by the basic cloud
capabilities representing common operations needed by basic VNFs, and
additional requirements for VNFs that go beyond the common cloud capabilities
including functional extensions, operational capabilities and additional
carrier grade requirements.
For the basic NFV requirements, we will analyze the required test cases,
leverage or improve upon existing test cases in OPNFV projects and upstream
projects whenever we can, and bridge the gaps when we must, to meet these basic
We are not yet ready to include compliance requirements for capabilities such
as hardware portability, carrier grade performance, fault management and other
operational features, security, MANO and VNF verification. These areas are
being studied for consideration in future OVP releases.
In some areas, we will start with a limited level of verification initially,
constrained by what community resources are able to support at this time, but
still serve a basic need that is not being fulfilled elsewhere. In these
areas, we bring significant value to the community we serve by starting a new
area of verification, breaking new ground and expanding it in the future.
In other areas, the functions being verified have yet to reach wide adoption
but are seen as important requirements in NFV, or features are only needed for
specific NFV use cases but an industry consensus about the APIs and behaviors
is still deemed beneficial. In such cases, we plan to incorporate the test
areas as optional. An optional test area will not have to be run or passed in
order to achieve compliance. Optional tests provide an opportunity for vendors
to demonstrate compliance with specific OPNFV features beyond the mandatory
Analysis of Scope
In order to define the scope of the 2018.09 release of the compliance and
verification program, this section analyzes NFV-focused platform capabilities
with respect to the high-level objectives and the general approach outlined in
the previous section. The analysis determines which capabilities are suitable
for inclusion in this release of the OVP and which capabilities are to be
addressed in future releases.
1. Basic Cloud Capabilities
The intent of these tests is to verify that the SUT has the required
capabilities that a basic VNF needs, and these capabilities are implemented in
a way that enables this basic VNF to run on any OPNFV compliant deployment.
A basic VNF can be thought of as a single virtual machine that is networked and
can perform the simplest network functions, for example, a simple forwarding
gateway, or a set of such virtual machines connected only by simple virtual
network services. Running such basic VNF leads to a set of common requirements,
- image management (testing Glance API)
- identity management (testing Keystone Identity API)
- virtual compute (testing Nova Compute API)
- virtual storage (testing Cinder API)
- virtual networks (testing Neutron Network API)
- forwarding packets through virtual networks in data path
- filtering packets based on security rules and port security in data path
- dynamic network runtime operations through the life of a VNF (e.g. attach/detach,
enable/disable, read stats)
- correct behavior after common virtual machine life cycles events (e.g.
suspend/resume, reboot, migrate)
- simple virtual machine resource scheduling on multiple nodes
OPNFV mainly supports OpenStack as the VIM up to the 2018.09 release. The VNFs
used in the OVP program, and features in scope for the program which are
considered to be basic to all VNFs, require commercial OpenStack distributions
to support a common basic level of cloud capabilities, and to be compliant to a
common specification for these capabilities. This requirement significantly
overlaps with OpenStack community's Interop working group's goals, but they are
not identical. The OVP runs the OpenStack Refstack-Compute test cases to verify
compliance to the basic common API requirements of cloud management functions
and VNF (as a VM) management for OPNFV. Additional NFV specific requirements
are added in network data path validation, packet filtering by security group
rules and port security, life cycle runtime events of virtual networks,
multiple networks in a topology, validation of VNF's functional state after
common life-cycle events including reboot, pause, suspense, stop/start and cold
migration. In addition, the basic requirement also verifies that the SUT can
allocate VNF resources based on simple anti-affinity rules.
The combined test cases help to ensure that these basic operations are always
supported by a compliant platform and they adhere to a common standard to
enable portability across OPNFV compliant platforms.
2. NFV specific functional requirements
NFV has functional requirements beyond the basic common cloud capabilities,
esp. in the networking area. Examples like BGPVPN, IPv6, SFC may be considered
additional NFV requirements beyond general purpose cloud computing. These
feature requirements expand beyond common OpenStack (or other VIM)
requirements. OPNFV OVP will incorporate test cases to verify compliance in
these areas as they become mature. Because these extensions may impose new API
demands, maturity and industry adoption is a prerequisite for making them a
mandatory requirement for OPNFV compliance. At the time of the 2018.09 release,
we have promoted tests of the OpenStack IPv6 API from optional to mandatory
while keeping BGPVPN as optional test area. Passing optional tests will not be
required to pass OPNFV compliance verification.
BGPVPNs are relevant due to the wide adoption of MPLS/BGP based VPNs in wide
area networks, which makes it necessary for data centers hosting VNFs to be
able to seamlessly interconnect with such networks. SFC is also an important
NFV requirement, however its implementation has not yet been accepted or
adopted in the upstream at the time of the 2018.09 release.
3. High availability
High availability is a common carrier grade requirement. Availability of a
platform involves many aspects of the SUT, for example hardware or lower layer
system failures or system overloads, and is also highly dependent on
configurations. The current OPNFV high availability verification focuses on
OpenStack control service failures and resource overloads, and verifies service
continuity when the system encounters such failures or resource overloads, and
also verifies the system heals after a failure episode within a reasonable time
window. These service HA capabilities are commonly adopted in the industry and
should be a mandatory requirement.
The current test cases in HA cover the basic area of failure and resource
overload conditions for a cloud platform's service availability, including all
of the basic cloud capability services, and basic compute and storage loads, so
it is a meaningful first step for OVP. We expect additional high availability
scenarios be extended in future releases.
4. Stress Testing
Resiliency testing involves stressing the SUT and verifying its ability to
absorb stress conditions and still provide an acceptable level of service.
Resiliency is an important requirement for end-users.
The 2018.09 release of OVP includes a load test which spins up a number of VMs
pairs in parallel to assert that the system under test can process the workload
spike in a stable and deterministic fashion.
Security is among the top priorities as a carrier grade requirement by the
end-users. Some of the basic common functions, including virtual network
isolation, security groups, port security and role based access control are
already covered as part of the basic cloud capabilities that are verified in
OVP. These test cases however do not yet cover the basic required security
capabilities expected of an end-user deployment. It is an area that we should
address in the near future, to define a common set of requirements and develop
test cases for verifying those requirements.
The 2018.09 release includes new test cases which verify that the role-based
access control (RBAC) functionality of the VIM is behaving as expected.
Another common requirement is security vulnerability scanning. While the OPNFV
security project integrated tools for security vulnerability scanning, this has
not been fully analyzed or exercised in 2018.09 release. This area needs
further work to identify the required level of security for the purpose of
OPNFV in order to be integrated into the OVP. End-user inputs on specific
requirements in security is needed.
6. Service assurance
Service assurance (SA) is a broad area of concern for reliability of the
NFVI/VIM and VNFs, and depends upon multiple subsystems of an NFV platform for
essential information and control mechanisms. These subsystems include
telemetry, fault management (e.g. alarms), performance management, audits, and
control mechanisms such as security and configuration policies.
The current 2018.09 release implements some enabling capabilities in NFVI/VIM
such as telemetry, policy, and fault management. However, the specification of
expected system components, behavior and the test cases to verify them have not
yet been adequately developed. We will therefore not be testing this area at
this time but defer to future study.
7. Use case testing
Use-case test cases exercise multiple functional capabilities of a platform in
order to realize a larger end-to-end scenario. Such end-to-end use cases do
not necessarily add new API requirements to the SUT per se, but exercise
aspects of the SUT's functional capabilities in more complex ways. For
instance, they allow for verifying the complex interactions among multiple VNFs
and between VNFs and the cloud platform in a more realistic fashion. End-users
consider use-case-level testing as a significant tool in verifying OPNFV
compliance because it validates design patterns and support for the types of
NFVI features that users care about.
There are a lot of projects in OPNFV developing use cases and sample VNFs. The
2018.09 release of OVP features two such use-case tests, spawning and verifying
a vIMS and a vEPC, correspondingly.
8. Additional capabilities
In addition to the capabilities analyzed above, there are further system
aspects which are of importance for the OVP. These comprise operational and
management aspects such as platform in-place upgrades and platform operational
insights such as telemetry and logging. Further aspects include API backward
compatibility / micro-versioning, workload migration, multi-site federation and
interoperability with workload automation platforms, e.g. ONAP. Finally,
efficiency aspects such as the hardware and energy footprint of the platform
are worth considering in the OVP.
OPNFV is addressing these items on different levels of details in different
projects. However, the contributions developed in these projects are not yet
considered widely available in commercial systems in order to include them in
the OVP. Hence, these aspects are left for inclusion in future releases of the
Scope of the 2018.09 release of the OVP
Summarizing the results of the analysis above, the scope of the 2018.09 release
of OVP is as follows:
- Mandatory test scope:
- Optional test scope:
\* The OPNFV OVP utilizes the same set of test cases as the OpenStack
interoperability program *OpenStack Powered Compute*. Passing the OPNFV OVP
does **not** imply that the SUT is certified according to the *OpenStack
Powered Compute* program. *OpenStack Powered Compute* is a trademark of the
OpenStack foundation and the corresponding certification label can only be
awarded by the OpenStack foundation.
Note: The SUT is limited to NFVI and VIM functions. While testing MANO
component capabilities is out of scope, certain APIs exposed towards MANO are
used by the current OPNFV compliance testing suite. MANO and other operational
elements may be part of the test infrastructure; for example used for workload
deployment and provisioning.
Scope considerations for future OVP releases
Based on the previous analysis, the following items are outside the scope of
the 2018.09 release of OVP but are being considered for inclusion in future
- service assurance
- use case testing
- platform in-place upgrade
- API backward compatibility / micro-versioning
- workload migration
- multi-site federation
- service function chaining
- platform operational insights, e.g. telemetry, logging
- efficiency, e.g. hardware and energy footprint of the platform
- interoperability with workload automation platforms e.g. ONAP
- security and vulnerability scanning
- performance measurements
Criteria for Awarding Compliance
This section provides guidance on compliance criteria for each test area. The
criteria described here are high-level, detailed pass/fail metrics are
documented in Dovetail test specifications.
1. All mandatory test cases must pass.
Exceptions to this rule may be legitimate, e.g. due to imperfect test tools or
reasonable circumstances that we can not foresee. These exceptions must be
documented and accepted by the reviewers.
2. Optional test cases are optional to run. Its test results, pass or fail,
do not impact compliance.
Applicants who choose to run the optional test cases can include the results
of the optional test cases to highlight the additional compliance.
Exemption from strict API response validation
Vendors of commercial NFVI products may have extended the Nova API to support
proprietary add-on features. These additions can cause Nova Tempest API tests
to fail due to unexpected data in API responses. In order to resolve this
transparently in the context of OVP, a temporary exemption process has been
created. More information on the exemption can be found in section
.. _`OVP Governance Guidelines`: https://www.opnfv.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/12/2018/01/OVP-Governance-Guidelines-1.0.1-012218.pdf
.. _`Pharos specification`: https://wiki.opnfv.org/display/pharos/Pharos+Specification