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authorMaryam Tahhan <maryam.tahhan@intel.com>2017-02-16 14:28:05 +0000
committerMaryam Tahhan <maryam.tahhan@intel.com>2017-02-17 09:35:25 +0000
commit2bb8c4857689cabe69d3d2d3d54dffa78d8f4a9f (patch)
tree75c0b7fdeb5167588fe42d02702fb7d5b354725a /docs/development
parent47ccd41d789085a2186fc1fb86364d93a20783ef (diff)
docs: moving to new doc structure
Change-Id: I91188deec2bd4e8aa405a9e023acde42b3fb31f7 Signed-off-by: Maryam Tahhan <maryam.tahhan@intel.com>
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diff --git a/docs/development/requirements/01-intro.rst b/docs/development/requirements/01-intro.rst
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+.. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
+.. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
+.. (c) OPNFV, Intel Corporation and others.
+
+Introduction
+============
+Barometer is the project that renames Software Fastpath service Quality Metrics
+(SFQM) and updates its scope which was networking centric.
+
+The goal of SFQM was to develop the utilities and libraries in DPDK to
+support:
+
+* Measuring Telco Traffic and Performance KPIs. Including:
+
+ * Packet Delay Variation (by enabling TX and RX time stamping).
+ * Packet loss (by exposing extended NIC stats).
+
+* Performance Monitoring of the DPDK interfaces (by exposing
+ extended NIC stats + collectd Plugin).
+* Detecting and reporting violations that can be consumed by VNFs
+ and higher level management systems (through DPDK Keep Alive).
+
+With Barometer the scope is extended to monitoring the NFVI. The ability to
+monitor the Network Function Virtualization Infrastructure (NFVI) where VNFs
+are in operation will be a key part of Service Assurance within an NFV
+environment, in order to enforce SLAs or to detect violations, faults or
+degradation in the performance of NFVI resources so that events and relevant
+metrics are reported to higher level fault management systems.
+If physical appliances are going to be replaced by virtualized appliances
+the service levels, manageability and service assurance needs to remain
+consistent or improve on what is available today. As such, the NFVI needs to
+support the ability to monitor:
+
+* Traffic monitoring and performance monitoring of the components that provide
+ networking functionality to the VNF, including: physical interfaces, virtual
+ switch interfaces and flows, as well as the virtual interfaces themselves and
+ their status, etc.
+* Platform monitoring including: CPU, memory, load, cache, themals, fan speeds,
+ voltages and machine check exceptions, etc.
+
+All of the statistics and events gathered must be collected in-service and must
+be capable of being reported by standard Telco mechanisms (e.g. SNMP), for
+potential enforcement or correction actions. In addition, this information
+could be fed to analytics systems to enable failure prediction, and can also be
+used for intelligent workload placement.
+
+
+All developed features will be upstreamed to Open Source projects relevant to
+telemetry such as `collectd`_ and `Ceilometer`_.
+
+The OPNFV project wiki can be found @ `Barometer`_
+
+Problem Statement
+==================
+Providing carrier grade Service Assurance is critical in the network
+transformation to a software defined and virtualized network (NFV).
+Medium-/large-scale cloud environments account for between hundreds and
+hundreds of thousands of infrastructure systems. It is vital to monitor
+systems for malfunctions that could lead to users application service
+disruption and promptly react to these fault events to facilitate improving
+overall system performance. As the size of infrastructure and virtual resources
+grow, so does the effort of monitoring back-ends. SFQM aims to expose as much
+useful information as possible off the platform so that faults and errors in
+the NFVI can be detected promptly and reported to the appropriate fault
+management entity.
+
+The OPNFV platform (NFVI) requires functionality to:
+
+* Create a low latency, high performance packet processing path (fast path)
+ through the NFVI that VNFs can take advantage of;
+* Measure Telco Traffic and Performance KPIs through that fast path;
+* Detect and report violations that can be consumed by VNFs and higher level
+ EMS/OSS systems
+
+Examples of local measurable QoS factors for Traffic Monitoring which impact
+both Quality of Experience and five 9's availability would be (using Metro Ethernet
+Forum Guidelines as reference):
+
+* Packet loss
+* Packet Delay Variation
+* Uni-directional frame delay
+
+Other KPIs such as Call drops, Call Setup Success Rate, Call Setup time etc. are
+measured by the VNF.
+
+In addition to Traffic Monitoring, the NFVI must also support Performance
+Monitoring of the physical interfaces themselves (e.g. NICs), i.e. an ability to
+monitor and trace errors on the physical interfaces and report them.
+
+All these traffic statistics for Traffic and Performance Monitoring must be
+measured in-service and must be capable of being reported by standard Telco
+mechanisms (e.g. SNMP traps), for potential enforcement actions.
+
+Barometer updated scope
+=======================
+The scope of the project is to provide interfaces to support monitoring of the
+NFVI. The project will develop plugins for telemetry frameworks to enable the
+collection of platform stats and events and relay gathered information to fault
+management applications or the VIM. The scope is limited to
+collecting/gathering the events and stats and relaying them to a relevant
+endpoint. The project will not enforce or take any actions based on the
+gathered information.
+
+.. image: barometer_scope.png
+
+Scope of SFQM
+=============
+**NOTE:** The SFQM project has been replaced by Barometer.
+The output of the project will provide interfaces and functions to support
+monitoring of Packet Latency and Network Interfaces while the VNF is in service.
+
+The DPDK interface/API will be updated to support:
+
+* Exposure of NIC MAC/PHY Level Counters
+* Interface for Time stamp on RX
+* Interface for Time stamp on TX
+* Exposure of DPDK events
+
+collectd will be updated to support the exposure of DPDK metrics and events.
+
+Specific testing and integration will be carried out to cover:
+
+* Unit/Integration Test plans: A sample application provided to demonstrate packet
+ latency monitoring and interface monitoring
+
+The following list of features and functionality will be developed:
+
+* DPDK APIs and functions for latency and interface monitoring
+* A sample application to demonstrate usage
+* collectd plugins
+
+The scope of the project involves developing the relavant DPDK APIs, OVS APIs,
+sample applications, as well as the utilities in collectd to export all the
+relavent information to a telemetry and events consumer.
+
+VNF specific processing, Traffic Monitoring, Performance Monitoring and
+Management Agent are out of scope.
+
+The Proposed Interface counters include:
+
+* Packet RX
+* Packet TX
+* Packet loss
+* Interface errors + other stats
+
+The Proposed Packet Latency Monitor include:
+
+* Cycle accurate stamping on ingress
+* Supports latency measurements on egress
+
+Support for failover of DPDK enabled cores is also out of scope of the current
+proposal. However, this is an important requirement and must-have functionality
+for any DPDK enabled framework in the NFVI. To that end, a second phase of this
+project will be to implement DPDK Keep Alive functionality that would address
+this and would report to a VNF-level Failover and High Availability mechanism
+that would then determine what actions, including failover, may be triggered.
+
+Consumption Models
+===================
+In reality many VNFs will have an existing performance or traffic monitoring
+utility used to monitor VNF behavior and report statistics, counters, etc.
+
+The consumption of performance and traffic related information/events provided
+by this project should be a logical extension of any existing VNF/NFVI monitoring
+framework. It should not require a new framework to be developed. We do not see
+the Barometer gathered metrics and evetns as major additional effort for
+monitoring frameworks to consume; this project would be sympathetic to existing
+monitoring frameworks. The intention is that this project represents an
+interface for NFVI monitoring to be used by higher level fault management
+entities (see below).
+
+Allowing the Barometer metrics and events to be handled within existing
+telemetry frameoworks makes it simpler for overall interfacing with higher
+level management components in the VIM, MANO and OSS/BSS. The Barometer
+proposal would be complementary to the Doctor project, which addresses NFVI Fault
+Management support in the VIM, and the VES project, which addresses the
+integration of VNF telemetry-related data into automated VNF management
+systems. To that end, the project committers and contributors for the Barometer
+project wish to collaborate with the Doctor and VES projects to facilitate this.
+
+.. _Barometer: https://wiki.opnfv.org/display/fastpath
+.. _collectd: http://collectd.org/
+.. _Ceilometer: https://wiki.openstack.org/wiki/Telemetry
diff --git a/docs/development/requirements/02-collectd.rst b/docs/development/requirements/02-collectd.rst
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+.. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
+.. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
+.. (c) OPNFV, Intel Corporation and others.
+
+collectd
+~~~~~~~~
+collectd is a daemon which collects system performance statistics periodically
+and provides a variety of mechanisms to publish the collected metrics. It
+supports more than 90 different input and output plugins. Input plugins retrieve
+metrics and publish them to the collectd deamon, while output plugins publish
+the data they receive to an end point. collectd also has infrastructure to
+support thresholding and notification.
+
+collectd statistics and Notifications
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Within collectd notifications and performance data are dispatched in the same
+way. There are producer plugins (plugins that create notifications/metrics),
+and consumer plugins (plugins that receive notifications/metrics and do
+something with them).
+
+Statistics in collectd consist of a value list. A value list includes:
+
+* Values, can be one of:
+
+ * Derive: used for values where a change in the value since it's last been
+ read is of interest. Can be used to calculate and store a rate.
+
+ * Counter: similar to derive values, but take the possibility of a counter
+ wrap around into consideration.
+
+ * Gauge: used for values that are stored as is.
+
+ * Absolute: used for counters that are reset after reading.
+
+* Value length: the number of values in the data set.
+
+* Time: timestamp at which the value was collected.
+
+* Interval: interval at which to expect a new value.
+
+* Host: used to identify the host.
+
+* Plugin: used to identify the plugin.
+
+* Plugin instance (optional): used to group a set of values together. For e.g.
+ values belonging to a DPDK interface.
+
+* Type: unit used to measure a value. In other words used to refer to a data
+ set.
+
+* Type instance (optional): used to distinguish between values that have an
+ identical type.
+
+* meta data: an opaque data structure that enables the passing of additional
+ information about a value list. "Meta data in the global cache can be used to
+ store arbitrary information about an identifier" [7].
+
+Host, plugin, plugin instance, type and type instance uniquely identify a
+collectd value.
+
+Values lists are often accompanied by data sets that describe the values in more
+detail. Data sets consist of:
+
+* A type: a name which uniquely identifies a data set.
+
+* One or more data sources (entries in a data set) which include:
+
+ * The name of the data source. If there is only a single data source this is
+ set to "value".
+
+ * The type of the data source, one of: counter, gauge, absolute or derive.
+
+ * A min and a max value.
+
+Types in collectd are defined in types.db. Examples of types in types.db:
+
+.. code-block:: console
+
+ bitrate value:GAUGE:0:4294967295
+ counter value:COUNTER:U:U
+ if_octets rx:COUNTER:0:4294967295, tx:COUNTER:0:4294967295
+
+In the example above if_octets has two data sources: tx and rx.
+
+Notifications in collectd are generic messages containing:
+
+* An associated severity, which can be one of OKAY, WARNING, and FAILURE.
+
+* A time.
+
+* A Message
+
+* A host.
+
+* A plugin.
+
+* A plugin instance (optional).
+
+* A type.
+
+* A types instance (optional).
+
+* Meta-data.
diff --git a/docs/development/requirements/03-dpdk.rst b/docs/development/requirements/03-dpdk.rst
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+.. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
+.. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
+.. (c) OPNFV, Intel Corporation and others.
+
+DPDK Enhancements
+==================
+This section will discuss the Barometer features that were integrated with DPDK.
+
+Measuring Telco Traffic and Performance KPIs
+--------------------------------------------
+This section will discuss the Barometer features that enable Measuring Telco Traffic
+and Performance KPIs.
+
+.. Figure:: stats_and_timestamps.png
+
+ Measuring Telco Traffic and Performance KPIs
+
+* The very first thing Barometer enabled was a call-back API in DPDK and an
+ associated application that used the API to demonstrate how to timestamp
+ packets and measure packet latency in DPDK (the sample app is called
+ rxtx_callbacks). This was upstreamed to DPDK 2.0 and is represented by
+ the interfaces 1 and 2 in Figure 1.2.
+
+* The second thing Barometer implemented in DPDK is the extended NIC statistics API,
+ which exposes NIC stats including error stats to the DPDK user by reading the
+ registers on the NIC. This is represented by interface 3 in Figure 1.2.
+
+ * For DPDK 2.1 this API was only implemented for the ixgbe (10Gb) NIC driver,
+ in association with a sample application that runs as a DPDK secondary
+ process and retrieves the extended NIC stats.
+
+ * For DPDK 2.2 the API was implemented for igb, i40e and all the Virtual
+ Functions (VFs) for all drivers.
+
+ * For DPDK 16.07 the API migrated from using string value pairs to using id
+ value pairs, improving the overall performance of the API.
+
+Monitoring DPDK interfaces
+--------------------------
+With the features Barometer enabled in DPDK to enable measuring Telco traffic and
+performance KPIs, we can now retrieve NIC statistics including error stats and
+relay them to a DPDK user. The next step is to enable monitoring of the DPDK
+interfaces based on the stats that we are retrieving from the NICs, by relaying
+the information to a higher level Fault Management entity. To enable this Barometer
+has been enabling a number of plugins for collectd.
+
+DPDK Keep Alive description
+---------------------------
+SFQM aims to enable fault detection within DPDK, the very first feature to
+meet this goal is the DPDK Keep Alive Sample app that is part of DPDK 2.2.
+
+DPDK Keep Alive or KA is a sample application that acts as a heartbeat/watchdog
+for DPDK packet processing cores, to detect application thread failure. The
+application supports the detection of ‘failed’ DPDK cores and notification to a
+HA/SA middleware. The purpose is to detect Packet Processing Core fails (e.g.
+infinite loop) and ensure the failure of the core does not result in a fault
+that is not detectable by a management entity.
+
+.. Figure:: dpdk_ka.png
+
+ DPDK Keep Alive Sample Application
+
+Essentially the app demonstrates how to detect 'silent outages' on DPDK packet
+processing cores. The application can be decomposed into two specific parts:
+detection and notification.
+
+* The detection period is programmable/configurable but defaults to 5ms if no
+ timeout is specified.
+* The Notification support is enabled by simply having a hook function that where this
+ can be 'call back support' for a fault management application with a compliant
+ heartbeat mechanism.
+
+DPDK Keep Alive Sample App Internals
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+This section provides some explanation of the The Keep-Alive/'Liveliness'
+conceptual scheme as well as the DPDK Keep Alive App. The initialization and
+run-time paths are very similar to those of the L2 forwarding application (see
+`L2 Forwarding Sample Application (in Real and Virtualized Environments)`_ for more
+information).
+
+There are two types of cores: a Keep Alive Monitor Agent Core (master DPDK core)
+and Worker cores (Tx/Rx/Forwarding cores). The Keep Alive Monitor Agent Core
+will supervise worker cores and report any failure (2 successive missed pings).
+The Keep-Alive/'Liveliness' conceptual scheme is:
+
+* DPDK worker cores mark their liveliness as they forward traffic.
+* A Keep Alive Monitor Agent Core runs a function every N Milliseconds to
+ inspect worker core liveliness.
+* If keep-alive agent detects time-outs, it notifies the fault management
+ entity through a call-back function.
+
+**Note:** Only the worker cores state is monitored. There is no mechanism or agent
+to monitor the Keep Alive Monitor Agent Core.
+
+DPDK Keep Alive Sample App Code Internals
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The following section provides some explanation of the code aspects that are
+specific to the Keep Alive sample application.
+
+The heartbeat functionality is initialized with a struct rte_heartbeat and the
+callback function to invoke in the case of a timeout.
+
+.. code:: c
+
+ rte_global_keepalive_info = rte_keepalive_create(&dead_core, NULL);
+ if (rte_global_hbeat_info == NULL)
+ rte_exit(EXIT_FAILURE, "keepalive_create() failed");
+
+The function that issues the pings hbeat_dispatch_pings() is configured to run
+every check_period milliseconds.
+
+.. code:: c
+
+ if (rte_timer_reset(&hb_timer,
+ (check_period * rte_get_timer_hz()) / 1000,
+ PERIODICAL,
+ rte_lcore_id(),
+ &hbeat_dispatch_pings, rte_global_keepalive_info
+ ) != 0 )
+ rte_exit(EXIT_FAILURE, "Keepalive setup failure.\n");
+
+The rest of the initialization and run-time path follows the same paths as the
+the L2 forwarding application. The only addition to the main processing loop is
+the mark alive functionality and the example random failures.
+
+.. code:: c
+
+ rte_keepalive_mark_alive(&rte_global_hbeat_info);
+ cur_tsc = rte_rdtsc();
+
+ /* Die randomly within 7 secs for demo purposes.. */
+ if (cur_tsc - tsc_initial > tsc_lifetime)
+ break;
+
+The rte_keepalive_mark_alive() function simply sets the core state to alive.
+
+.. code:: c
+
+ static inline void
+ rte_keepalive_mark_alive(struct rte_heartbeat *keepcfg)
+ {
+ keepcfg->state_flags[rte_lcore_id()] = 1;
+ }
+
+Keep Alive Monitor Agent Core Monitoring Options
+The application can run on either a host or a guest. As such there are a number
+of options for monitoring the Keep Alive Monitor Agent Core through a Local
+Agent on the compute node:
+
+ ====================== ========== =============
+ Application Location DPDK KA LOCAL AGENT
+ ====================== ========== =============
+ HOST X HOST/GUEST
+ GUEST X HOST/GUEST
+ ====================== ========== =============
+
+
+For the first implementation of a Local Agent SFQM will enable:
+
+ ====================== ========== =============
+ Application Location DPDK KA LOCAL AGENT
+ ====================== ========== =============
+ HOST X HOST
+ ====================== ========== =============
+
+Through extending the dpdkstat plugin for collectd with KA functionality, and
+integrating the extended plugin with Monasca for high performing, resilient,
+and scalable fault detection.
+
+.. _L2 Forwarding Sample Application (in Real and Virtualized Environments): http://dpdk.org/doc/guides/sample_app_ug/l2_forward_real_virtual.html
diff --git a/docs/development/requirements/barometer_scope.png b/docs/development/requirements/barometer_scope.png
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diff --git a/docs/development/requirements/index.rst b/docs/development/requirements/index.rst
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+.. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
+.. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
+.. (c) OPNFV, Intel Corporation and others.
+
+**********************
+Barometer Requirements
+**********************
+.. toctree::
+ :maxdepth: 3
+ :numbered:
+
+ 01-intro.rst
+ 02-collectd.rst
+ 03-dpdk.rst
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